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1.2 英语专业解题技巧指南

英语写作主要考查考生与话题有关的知识体系、对写作环境的判断能力、认知能力以及外语能力。过程复杂,因此写作时应当抓重点,切忌眉毛胡子一把抓。一篇好的作文应当思路清晰、有条有理、语言地道、用词优美到位,因此备考时应掌握一定的技巧,以便游刃有余的完成一篇高质量的文章。

1.认真审题

认真审题是写好作文的基础,否则就会犯方向性的错误。审题构思除了明确文章要表达的主题,勾勒出文章的思路,还要确定文体,谋篇布局,一切服从于表达全文主题的需要。由于时间和字数的限制,学生一定要有统筹观念,合理组织段落。首先应从总体上确定文章结构,一般说来可大致将全文分为三个部分:引言、正文和结语。并根据主次关系,合理分配。

2.明确结构

文章结构一般为三段式,因此学生应熟悉三段式具体的写作方法,使每段各具特色,文章的开头段有虎虎之威,正文段有详尽之实,结尾段有铿锵之力。

(1)引言段(introduction)

引言段包括两部分:opening sentence和thesis statement。文章开头不但要引出全文的主题,而且要承担吸引读者注意和暗示正文结构的作用。好的引言段要新颖优美,激发读者兴趣,给评卷人留下深刻的第一印象。为使自己的开头与众不同,可采用以下常用的写作技巧:

引用名言警句

为了更好的支撑我们的中心思想,可以用名人名言或者某一领域里专家的话作为论据,从而使之更具有说服力。

例:“Success comes not only from perspiration and inspiration, but also from satisfactory performance in interviews,”commented Dr. Kenly in his book.

开门见山

引言段可以直接表明文章主题,让读者对文章内容一目了然。

例如“Should We for or Against an Interview”可这样开头:Nowadays interview is becoming more and more important in recruitment.

数据服人

数字给人一种真实可信的感觉,人们通常喜欢用数字说明问题,把问题或现象显现于读者面前,然后进行分析,使作者的观点显得客观,具有较强的说服力。

例如: Every day millions of job-hunters in the world write letters of application, wishing that they would be given a chance of interview.

驳论式

先提出一种与本文观点相反但读者可能会同意的观点,而后笔锋一转,指出这一观点的错误之处,引出自己的观点。

例如:Ever since the easing of school children's study burden is advocated by educators. Some teachers and parents frown at it,saying that it will exert bad effects on the children (引言先引出某些人的观点). But(通过转折引出自己的不同观点——全文主题) I think easing school children’s study burden will do good to school children both physically and mentally.

(2)正文(body)

正文需要用一定的细节支持引言段中提出的论点(thesis statement),每个正文段落要论证一个要点,而这些要点联合起来证明thesis statement的正确性。正文段的质量直接决定文章的论述质量,因此正文的写作也要掌握必要的方法技巧。

因果法

作者通过分析事物发生的原因和结果阐述主题句、展开段落,使之更加符合逻辑,以理服人。

例:Cigarette smoke contains nicotine, several cancer producing or irritating substances and carbon monoxide gas. Damage to the lining of the bronchial tubes is much more common among cigarette smokers than non-smokers, even there is no obvious disease.

举例子

举例是最常用的论证方法,而且比较容易掌握。用实际生活中的例子论证作者提出的观点,因其符合逻辑和常理,具有更强说服力。

例:“The important role of a city’s local conditions in the urban design”

Take Beijing for example. In the past few years, Beijing has been removing a large number of such alleys traditionally called “hutong”, in order to make it become a real international city. But without these “hutongs” can this city still be called Beijing, an ancient capital? The disappearance of “hutongs” means the disappearance of a period of history, a cordial lifestyle, and even the disappearance of Beijing itself. Then Beijing will lose its uniqueness.

下定义

定义就是确切地说明某一事物的本质属性或某一概念的内涵和外延。一般来说,定义包含两个方面:一是限定事物的属类;二是说明该事物的种差,使它区别于同一类属中其它事物的特点。

例:Why then, is generation gap? Generation gap refers to the distance and contradiction between the old and the young. It’s a common phenomenon that exists everywhere in the world and influences both the old and the young.

比较对照

比较的目的是指出各种人物、事物在某些方面的不同之处,从而更加突出他们之间的不同之处或差距。

例如:“Are Dialects Just as Acceptable in Public Places?”

Mandarin, which means “common language”, is the country’s predominant language and is widely used by more than 70 percent of the population. However, local dialects still enjoy popularity for relatively less-educated people in some occasions.

(3)结尾段

文章的最后一段通常由三至四句来概括主题,结束全文,其重要性不可忽视。英语写作中的说明文、论说文特别强调首尾呼应,故有“三明治”式的写作称谓。一篇文章的结尾具体应写什么内容,采取什么形式,首先要考虑能否产生好的效果。好的结尾往往能起到画龙点睛的作用,或令人回味,或令人思索。

 总结全文(summary)

在文章结尾处对全文阐述的内容进行概括和总结,进一步深化主题。

例如:“The important role of a city’s local conditions in the urban design”

In conclusion, any urban design should take the city’s original cultural heritage into account. The designers should suit their design to local conditions and try to take advantage of the local resources. A scientific city design should be dependent on the city’s regional characteristics, on a case-by-case basis.

照应前文(respond to the beginning)

通过重复引言部分提出的观点,以达到强化主题、首尾呼应的目的。

例如:For my part, I think what’s the most important I have learned in the past four years, is that I have gained more knowledge and acquired some basic professional skills, which will lay a sound foundation for my future career. Since voluntary blood donation is beneficial to the blood receivers, to the donators themselves and to the society, why don’t we all join in the line?(开头)

In these precious years, I believe that we should not only learn the necessary knowledge, but also try to acquire some other skills such as communication skills to prepare for our future careers. With these qualities I am sure that we will have enough confidence to meet the challenges in the future.(结尾)

进行预见(prediction)

对发展中的新情况、新事物寄予厚望,并向读者展示良好的发展前景。此方法给人鼓舞,有助于增加文章的感染力。

例如:In conclusion, the American family of today is different from the family of fifty years ago. In the modern family, the roles of the father, mother, and children have changed as more and more women work outside the home. The next century may bring more important changes to the American family structure.

提出解决问题的办法(come up with solutions)

结尾段就文章讨论的问题或现象,提出解决的方法和建议,指明发展的方向。

例如:To achieve a most effective forest saving campaign, we can hold worldwide boycotts against any products directly and indirectly coming out of from forestland. (提出建议)

警醒读者(warn the readers)

在文章结尾讨论可能引起的不好的后果,从而引起读者对所讨论问题的高度重视。

例如:In a word, wisely and correctly channeled, ambition can benefit us tremendously;(指出结论)otherwise, it may ruin others and ourselves.(提出警醒)

3.注意语篇连贯

段落中各个句子都应围绕本段中心展开,独立的句子连成内容紧凑的段落需要借助一定的技巧,从而使句型多样、结构严谨、通顺畅达、逻辑严密,且能有效、生动、准确地表达思想。

◆逻辑严密,结构紧凑

写作中过多使用简单句,会造成简单句堆砌,文章松散,为了避免这种现象,可以通过使用连接词或过渡词,过渡词是一种关系引导词,其作用是用来连接或转折上下文关系,使文章连贯、自然、通顺、合乎逻辑。

用连接词连接句子:however,but,still,in spite of,nevertheless等。

用转折词表示结果:therefore,as a result,consequently,for this reason,hence等。

用转折词表示前后顺序:first,second,third,last,the former,the latter,in the first place,next等。

表示比较和对照的过渡词:like,likewise,similarly,in the same way,as,as well as,equally important,conversely,on the other hand,by comparison,unlike,whereas,in contrast.

表示因果关系的过渡词:because,for this/that reason,due to,therefore,thus,hence,so,so that,as a result,in this way,consequently,accordingly.

表示转折、让步的过渡词:but,however,yet,instead,on the other hand,on the contrary,nevertheless,though,although,even though,in spite of,despite.

表示补充说明或强调的过渡词:and,furthermore,besides,also,in addition,moreover,what is more,most important,above all,in particular,especially,indeed.

◆长短句相互交错

如果句子清一色是简单句,文章必定很单调乏味。如果全篇充满了冗长的复杂句,读起来也很费力。英文段落中的各个语句在长度上应该有一定变换。短句子适用于表述概念,陈述事实,增强论述的力度,给人以精炼强调之感;长句子经常用于描写,解释和论述一个完整的情况,给人以严谨深刻之感。英文写作要尽量使自己的文章的长短句结合。

例:I have often wondered whether some people,who had no intention of making a purchase,would take advantage of this privilege.One day I asked this question to the shop girl,and I learned it was indeed the case.

4.认真复查

作文完成后,复查是必不可少的。考生需要把文章再通读一遍,尽量发现文章中的错误并且改正。一般而言,检查包括三个方面:1)句法,要确保每句话都是完整的,主谓分明。2)时态,全文时态要保持一致。一般情况下,文章绝大部分使用的是一般现在时,使用过去发生的事例时要用过去时。3)要检查书写和语法错误,包括单词拼写错误、大小写错误、名词单复数、主谓是否一致、标点符号以及词性问题等。最后的复查阶段不需很长的时间,但是对于提高文章质量,避免不必要的失分是十分重要的。

第2章 基础英语高分范文100篇

本部分精选的100篇高分范文按照“基础英语”常考的题型,分为:常规的根据所给信息写作文、根据所给文章内容写一篇中文或英文摘要。另一种题型是为给出的一篇文章补充一个段落,这种题型被上海外国语大学采用过,但并不常见,因此本书不涉及针对该题型的练习。

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